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Every topographical inquirer must have remarked the number of surnames that have originated from these humble possessions; and how many have either become utterly extinct or have been transferred to other, and often remote, districts. — A Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial "Words, &c, from the Fourteenth Century, by J. The proportion of English families who still enjoy possession of the lands from which their surnames are derived, as Ashburnham of Ashburnham, Wombwell of Wombwell, Polwhele of Polwhele, is infinitessimally small. To prevent misapprehension, it is as well to remark, that Eng. throughout means my own former work ; while the volume of Mr. This by no means depends upon length of residence ; for while there are many (especially those connected with merchandise), who, though long among us, are not of us, there are, on the other hand, still more who, albeit their settlement is recent, may be reckoned among the truest-hearted of Britons. — The Landed Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland, by Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster. I have endeavoured to follow the middle course, of neither hastily admitting, nor of unfairly rejecting, surnames of foreign origin, according to the means of judging which I possessed. The same remark applies to the Scottish families who properly write themselves ' of that Ilk.' Besides these more regular local names, there are two other classes which are derived from places; namely — 1. I may observe here, that.inafew of the many cases in which I have failed to identify local surnames with localities, I have proved them to belong to this class by giving the etymology of the word. Surnames derived prom Trades, Occupations, and Offices. — English Surnames, and their place in the Teutonic Family. Those which indicate the country or district from which the family came, as Ireland, Maine, Cornwall (with the adjective forms, Irish, Maunsel, Cornwallis) &c. Those which are borrowed from the situation, rather than the name, of the original bearer's residence ; as Hill, Wood, Tree, originally At- Hill, At- Wood, At- Tree, &c. — I have little to remark here, beyond what has been said in English Surnames. Richard Fitz- Gilbert, from his father's baptismal name.* It would seem that, among the Anglo-Saxons, words designating employments were sometimes used as we now employ baptismal or Christian names. — Encyclopaedia Heraldica, or a complete Dictionary of Heraldry, by W. " In carrying out this resolution I realized ' the pursuit of knowledge under difficulties,' for, * An old sailor once told me, almost in the same breath, that he had " sarved" on board the Billy -Rough-wn (Bellerophon) ; and that he had seen Muster Abraham Packer (Ibrahim Pacha). Mutter- ing to myself that here was, at all events, something like an approach to a reconciliation of my written name of Gardyne with the pronounced one of Gairn, the next turned up by the old gentle- man and presented to me, as one of the said family, was thus recorded : — 1 Born Oct. Dalgairns, Nether Middleton.' ' Beheading ' this, I got my pronounced name at once ; but what is more surprising is, that on referring to my own memoranda I was satisfied that the said David Dalgairns was my own father, the brother of Margaret Gairden, and both the children of the worthy farmer at Nether Middleton, calling himself, or rather being called by the sessions clerk of the day both Gairden and Dalgairns ; and, as if this confusion were not enough, the said David Dalgairns bearing himself in later life, and handing down to the next generation, the name of Gardyne ! Being civiliter mortui, dead to the world, they assumed, with their spiritual life, a new name.* The following is a remarkable set of instances : — On October 17, 1537, the religious fraternity of Winchcombe, co. " My correspondent goes on to inform me that he has discovered the additional forms of Garden, Gam, Gardin, Gardne, Game, Dalgarn, Dalgamer, Dalgardns, Dalgardyne, and Dalgama, all springing of course from Garden, with or without its medieval prefix Del. Gloucester, consisted of the abbot and seventeen monks, who, as parties to a document of small importance executed that day, sign themselves by their assumed or spiritual names.

But another cause of uncertainty has arisen from what may be called the variations rather than corruptions of names, as when in deeds executed by the same person, he is called indifferently Chapman and Mercator, or Smith and Faber. From dangerous or ill-reputed beasts, such as Urso, Purcell, Machell, (Mal- chien), Lupus (Lovel), Maulovel, Asinus (L'Asne); Anglice, Bear, Pig, Evil-dog, Wolf, Bad-wolf, Ass, &c. From personal deformities, such as Malemains, Malebranche, Foljambe, Tortesmains, Maureward, Vis-de-Leu, Front-de-Boeuf ; Anglice, Bad-hands, Bad-arm, Bad-leg, Twisted-hands, Squinter, Wolf's-face, and Bullock' s-head. From moral defects, such as Malvoisin, Mauduit, Mautenant ; Anglice, Bad- neighbour, Ill-conducted, Faithless (? Analogous surnames of indigenous growth, and later date, are widely scattered over the pages of this volume. With regard to surnames apparently relating to the Virtues and other Abstract Ideas, I have found occasion to modify some of the statements which I formerly advanced. Surnames identical in form with Oaths and Exclamations, though a very limited class, are more numerous than I formerly considered them to be, as will be seen on perusal of the dictionary. On the family names said to have been borrowed from Historical Inci- dents, and to which I have devoted the first chapter of Vol. of English Surnames, I have bestowed a considerable amount of criticism, and the result is, that they are, at least in numerous instances, derived from much more probable, though less romantic, sources. See, for example, Lockhart, Dalziel, Napier, Tyrwhitt, Skene, Erskine, and many other articles in the present volume. Foreign Surnames naturalized in these islands have caused me much trouble, from the difficulty which exists of determining when an immigrating family may be truly said to have become denizens of the United Kingdom. In deeds of one and the same person, whose name would now be written John Church, or John Kirke, and who flourished in Derbyshire in the reign of Edward III., the following variations occur : — John atte Schirche, John at Chyrch, John del Kyrke, Johannes de Kyrke, John Othekyrke, John at Kyrke.f In Scotland still greater irregularities prevailed, and do still prevail, as when kinsmen write themselves Ballantyne, Bannatyne, Ballenden, and Belenden. on making known my wants to the functionary of Glammis, and furnishing my name, he drew forth a shabby volume, and therefrom responses of such a startling character, as to leave me in considerable doubt between my belief in the oracular quality usually ascribed to such records, and my own identity. The following extract of a letter, addressed to me by Mr. The first entry turned up by the worthy interpreter, and assigned to my family, was the birth, Feb. The tall Tilneys.* * Of what a lofty disposition must one branch of this eminent family he, who not content to pass through the world as Tall Tilneys, must needs add a Long Pole to their name I (Explanation of &oo testations, &c. — Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian names, by William Arthur, M.

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